A complex sentence consists of an independent clause (it makes sense on its own) and at least one subordinate clause (it does not make sense on its own).
They are joined by a subordinating conjunction.
If the subordinate clause is at the start, a comma is used to separate the clauses.
The subordinating conjunctions are:
Take the cake out of the oven when it is brown.
Although I enjoy horse-riding, my favourite hobby is swimming.
Miss Booth is tired because Todd woke her up early.
Task 1: Underline the subordinate clause in each sentence.
- Because she was cold, Sally put on her gloves.
- Whenever he was mad, Dan took ten deep breaths.
- Kim dropped her children off at school before going to work.
- While Tom cleaned the kitchen, Sam cleaned the bathroom.
- Ryan was wearing shorts although it was snowing.
Task 2: Complete each complex sentence by adding a suitable independent clause.
- After the game, ______________________________________________.
- Although we won, ____________________________________________.
- Since it was raining, ___________________________________________.
- While I was waiting, ___________________________________________.
- Before the film, ______________________________________________.
Task 3: Write 10 complex sentences using each subordinating conjunction.
Don’t forget to punctuate your sentences correctly.